Hormones and Reproductive Health

Hormones and Reproductive Health

Written by Michelle Violi, Pharm.D. – Women’s International Pharmacy

 

Couple expecting babyWhat would we do without the human reproductive system? True, we might have fewer hormonal ups and downs, but it wouldn’t be long before humans would no longer populate the earth. Let’s take a closer look at how this very important system works in both women and men.

The Female Reproductive System

A woman’s reproductive system is delicate and complex. In order for conception to occur, it is important for a woman’s hormones to be balanced and her organs and tissues healthy. Hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play leading roles; however, there are many other hormones that are important players in the intricate process that is the female reproductive system.

Immediately following menstruation, estrogen levels begin to rise, causing the lining of the uterus to thicken. At ovulation an egg is expelled from the ovary into the fallopian tube where it travels to the uterus. After ovulation occurs, progesterone is produced from the corpus luteum, which forms in the ovary from which the egg was released.

Progesterone causes the uterine lining to become secretory and ready for the egg to implant should fertilization occur. If fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining. The corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over its production in the second trimester of pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum breaks down, estrogen and progesterone levels fall, menstruation occurs, and the cycle begins anew.

The Male Reproductive System

A man’s reproductive system is no less complex. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis), and LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone also is important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass, and sex drive.

Hormonal Effects on Fertility

Infertility issues are very complicated and have many possible causes, including hormone imbalances or deficiencies. The following are just a few ways hormones play a role in fertility.

Hypothyroidism, or low thyroid function, can affect fertility due to menstrual cycles without ovulation, insufficient progesterone levels following ovulation, increased prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. In a study involving 394 infertile women, 23.9% had hypothyroidism. After treatment for hypothyroidism, 76.6% of infertile women conceived within 6 weeks to 1 year.

Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is a condition of insufficient progesterone exposure to maintain a normal secretory endometrium and allow for normal embryo implantation and growth. Progesterone is used in patients who experience recurrent miscarriages due to LPD. In addition, studies have shown progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm birth in certain individuals.

Conclusion

The human reproductive system is delicate, complex, and affects the overall health of women and men. Hormones serve an important role in maintaining harmony and promoting fertility in this intricate system. Because of this, achieving hormonal balance is a crucial component to supporting reproductive and overall health.

  • Lessey BA, Young SL. Yen & Jaffe’s Reproductive Endocrinology. 7th ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2014. https://www-clinicalkey-com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B978145572758200010X?scrollTo=%23hl0000927 Accessed July 3, 2017
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/the-male-reproductive-system Accessed July 3, 2017
  • Liedman R, Hansson SR, Howe D, et al. Reproductive hormones in plasma over the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea compared with healthy subjects. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2008;24:508-513. Accessed April 11, 2017.
  • Hassan SS, Romero R, Vidyadhari D, et al. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38:18-31.
  • Barda G, Ben-Haroush A, Barkat J, et al. Effect of vaginal progesterone, administered to prevent preterm birth, on impedance to blood flow in fetal and uterine circulation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36:743-748.
  • Mesen TB, Young SL. Progesterone and the luteal phase. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2015;42(1):135-151.
  • Verma I, Sood R, Juneja S, et al. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in infertile women and evaluation of response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2012 Jan-Jun; 2(1):17-19.
Hormones and Reproductive Health2017-12-05T12:33:07+00:00

Book Review – Venus on Fire, Mars on Ice

Book Review – Venus on Fire, Mars on Ice: Hormonal Balance – The Key to Life, Love and Energy by John Gray, PhD

Written by Carol Peterson, RPh, CNP – Women’s International Pharmacy

In his book Men are From Mars, Women are From Venus, Dr. John Gray focused on the differences between men and women; in Venus on Fire, Mars on Ice he delves into why those differences occur. Dr. Gray explains that, not only do we need a balance of hormones for managing PMS, post-partum depression, menopause, and andropause, but hormone balance also has a great impact on our relationships. Specifically, coping mechanisms for stress affect our relationships, and hormones play a vital role in the different ways men and women use to deal with stress.

Cortisol

Due to unrelenting demands of life in the modern world, many men and women are constantly stressed. As a result, cortisol production–which is designed to reach peak levels when challenged with an emergency and then quickly drop down–stays at a high level. A chronic high level of cortisol may contribute to emotional instability (among other things), which can affect relationships.

When trying to reduce or deal with stress, men release testosterone and women release the pituitary hormone oxytocin. High cortisol levels may interfere with normal production of both testosterone and oxytocin, hampering both men and women from their attempts at stress reduction.

Testosterone and Oxytocin

When a man’s testosterone level is adequate, it allows him to react in urgent situations where he needs to focus keenly, step up, and solve a problem. In fact, solving problems may cause some men’s testosterone levels to actually rise, while simultaneously lowering stress hormones like cortisol.

While small amounts of testosterone will also help women feel good, too much will actually increase their stress levels. Higher testosterone levels in women might be useful for competition, such as in the workplace, but sustained high levels of testosterone take a toll. When women get home from work, their stress levels may rise as they face the pressures of all the things that need to be done.

In contrast with the use of procrastination to increase testosterone in men, planning ahead stimulates oxytocin release in women. For women, a release of oxytocin makes them feel safe and nurturing, feelings that in turn encourage oxytocin levels to rise further. On the other hand, oxytocin doesn’t help men deal with stress and can even bring their testosterone levels down.

Insulin and Serotonin

Other fundamental substances that play an important role in relationships include the hormones insulin and serotonin and their interaction with glucose (blood sugar). Every cell in the body needs a consistent supply of glucose to function, and insulin controls how it is utilized. The brain is particularly sensitive to fluctuations in blood sugar, altering our moods, decision-making abilities, and other aspects of behavior that can affect interpersonal relationships.

When blood sugar drops, the production of serotonin (which has a calming effect) also drops. To make matters worse, the body responds to the low serotonin levels by producing more cortisol, which increases anxiety.

Conclusion

Dr. Gray believes that understanding these basic hormonal differences in each other is the key to maintaining loving relationships. Aging leads to lower levels of testosterone and oxytocin, as well as increased insulin resistance and low serotonin levels. This creates even more difficulty in dealing with stress, and makes hormonal balance even more critical. Dr. Gray suggests that diet and lifestyle are important building blocks to producing and maintaining these hormones in proper balance.

Book Review – Venus on Fire, Mars on Ice2018-07-10T17:41:01+00:00